ASME B31.4:2019 pdf free download

ASME B31.4:2019 pdf free download

ASME B31.4:2019 pdf free download.Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries.
401.1.1 CLassification of Loads. The design of a pipeline shall be based on consideratio,i of the loads identified in this section to the extent that they are signiticant to the proposed system and applicable to the proposed installation and operation. Loads that may cause or contribute to pipeline failure or loss of serviceability of’ the pipeline system shall he identified and accounted for in the design. For strength design, loads shall he classified as one of the following:
(a) sustained
(c) construction
(d) transient
401.1.2 Sustained Loads. Sustained loads are those arising from the intended use of’ the pipeline system and loads from other sources. The weight of the pipeline, including components, fluids, and slurries, and loads due to pressure are examples of sustained loads. Soil cover, external hydrostatic pressure, and vibration due to equipinent are exaiiiples of sustai,ied loads Irony other sources. Reaction forces it supports from sustained loads and loads due to sustained displacement or rotations of supports are also sustained loads.
401.1.3 OccasionaL Loads. Examples of occasional loads arc those resulting from wind, snow, ice, seismic. road and rail traffic, temperature change, currents, and waves except where the>’ need to he considered as sustained loads (loads caused by temperature change may also be considered sustained in some instances). Loads resulting from prestressing, residual forces from installation, subsidence, differential settlement, frost heave, and thaw scttli’im’nt are iiwlucled in occasional loads.
401.1.4 Construction Loads. Loads necessary [or the installation and pressure testing oithe pipeline system arc construction loads. Examples of construction loads include handling, storage, installation, and hydrotesting.
401,1.5 Transient Loads. Loads that may occur during operation of the pipeline, such as fire, impact, falling objects, and trailsiemly conditions (during landslides, third-party damage, equipment collisions, and accidental overpressure), including surge, are examples of transientloads.
401.2 Application of Loads
401.2.1 Restrained Versus Unrestrained.The restraintcondition is a factor in the structural behavior of the pipe-line and, consequently,affects stresses and applicablestress limits.The degree of restraint may vary with pipe-line construction activities, support conditions, soil prop-erties,terrain, and time.For purposes of design, this Coderecognizes two restraint conditions,restrained andunrestrained. Guidance in categorizing the restraintcondition is given below. Examples given are neithercomprehensive nor definitive.